This formula of excommunication against criminals is thought to date from the tenth or eleventh century but now survives in the early twelfth-century legal collection known as the Textus Roffensis.

Manuscripts

  • H: Strood, Medway Archive and Local Studies Centre, MS DRc/R1 (Textus Roffensis), fos. 98r-99v
    description & facsimiles